Positive Energy
Design Around People. A Good Building Follows.

Harvard Healthy Buildings References


  1. Li, Y., G. M. Leung, J. W. Tang, X. Yang, C. Y. H. Chao, J. Z. Lin, J. W. Lu, et al. “Role of Ventilation in Airborne Transmission of Infectious Agents in the Built Environment ? A Multidisciplinary Systematic Review.” Indoor Air 17, no. 1 (February 2007): 2–18. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2006.00445.x.

  2. Parthasarathy, Srinandini, William J Fisk, and Thomas E McKone. “Effect of Ventilation on Chronic Health Risks in Schools and Offices.” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory January 4, 2013,.

  3. Shendell, D. G., A. M. Winer, R. Weker, and S. D. Colome. “Evidence of Inadequate Ventilation in Portable Classrooms: Results of a Pilot Study in Los Angeles County.” Indoor Air 14, no. 3 (June 2004): 154–58. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2004.00235.x.

  4. Logue, J. M., T. E. McKone, M. H. Sherman, and B. C. Singer. “Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences.” Indoor Air 21, no. 2 (March 10, 2011): 92–109. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2010.00683.x.

  5. Allen, J., MacNaughton, P., Laurent, J. G. C., Flanigan, S. S., Eitland, E. S., & Spengler, J. D. (2015). Green Buildings and Health. Current Environmental Health Reports, 2(3), 250-258. doi: 10.1007/s40572-015-0063-y

  6. Daisey, J. M., W. J. Angell, and M. G. Apte. “Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools: An Analysis of Existing Information.” Indoor Air 13, no. 1 (March 2003): 53–64. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0668.2003.00153.x.

  7. Haverinen-Shaughnessy U, DJ Moschandreas, and RJ Shaughnessy. “Association Between Substandard Classroom Ventilation Ratesand Students’ Academic Achievement.” Indoor Air 21, no. 2 (April 1, 2011): 121–31. Accessed July 7, 2016. doi:10.1111/j.1600- 0668.2010.00686.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0668.2010.00686.x.

  8. ASHRAE. ASHRAE Standard 62.1 - 2013: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 2013.

  9. Hanssen, S. O. “HVAC-the Importance of Clean Intake Section and Dry Air Filter in Cold Climate.” Indoor Air 14, no. s7 (August 2004): 195–201. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2004.00288.x.

  10. Mendell, M. J., Q. Lei-Gomez, A. G. Mirer, O. Seppnen, and G. Brunner. “Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in US Office Buildings: The US EPA BASE Study.” Indoor Air 18, no. 4 (August2008): 301–16. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2008.00531.x.

  11. Wargocki, Pawel, David P. Wyon, Jan Sundell, Geo Clausen, And P. Ole Fanger. “The Effects of Outdoor Air Supply Rate in anOffice on Perceived Air Quality, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) Symptoms and Productivity.” Indoor Air 10, no. 4 (December 2000): 222–36. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0668.2000.010004222.x.

  12. Jafari, Mohammad Javad, Ali Asghar Khajevandi, Seyed Ali Mousavi Najarkola, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Mohammad Amin Pourhoseingholi, Leila Omidi, and Saba Kalantary. “Association of Sick Building Syndrome with Indoor Air Parameters.” Tanaffos14, no. 1 (2015): 55–62.

  13. Janssen, John E. “The History of Ventilation and Temperature Control.” ASHRAE Journal 1999,: 1–6.

  14. Luongo, Julia C., Kevin P. Fennelly, Julia A. Keen, Zhiqiang John Zhai, Byron W. Jones, and Shelly L. Miller. “Role of Mechanical Ventilation in the Airborne Transmission of Infectious Agents in Buildings.” Indoor Air November 2015,: n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/ina.12267

  15. Hoge, Charles W., Mary R. Reichler, Edward A. Dominguez, John C. Bremer, Timothy D. Mastro, Katherine A. Hendricks, Daniel M. Musher, et al. “An Epidemic of Pneumococcal Disease in an Overcrowded, Inadequately Ventilated Jail.” New England Journal of Medicine 331, no. 10 (September 8, 1994): 643–48. doi:10.1056/nejm199409083311004.

  16. Kak, Vivek. “Infections in Confined Spaces: Cruise Ships, Military Barracks, and College Dormitories.”Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 21, no. 3 (September 2007): 773–84. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2007.06.004.

  17. Sundell, J., H. Levin, W. W. Nazaroff, W. S. Cain, W. J. Fisk, D. T. Grimsrud, F. Gyntelberg, et al. “Ventilation Rates and Health: Multidisciplinary Review of the Scientific Literature.” Indoor Air 21, no. 3 (February 1, 2011): 191–204. doi:10.1111/j.1600- 0668.2010.00703.x.

  18. Fisk, W.J., et al., Economizer System Cost Effectiveness: Accounting for the Influence of Ventilation Rate on Sick Leave. 2003,http://escholarhip.org/uc/item/2px1f1mw.

  19. Milton, D.K.; Glencross, P.M.; Walters, M.D. Risk of Sick Leave Associated with Outdoor Air Supply Rate, Humidification, andOccupant Complaints. Indoor Air 2000, 10, 212–221.

  20. Brundage, J.; Scott, R.M.; Lednar, W.; Smith, D.; Miller, R. Building-Associated Risk of Febrile Acute Respiratory Diseases in Army Trainees. JAMA 1988, 259, 2108–2112

  21. Drinka, P.; Krause, P.; Schilling, M.; Miller B.; Shult, P.; Gravenstein, S. Report of an Outbreak: Nursing Home Architecture and Influenza—Attack Rates. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 1996, 44, 910–913.

  22. Knibbs, L.; Morawska, L.; Bell, S.; Grzybowski, P. Room Ventilation and the Risk of Airborne Infection Transmission In 3 Health Care Settings Within a Large Teaching Hospital. Am. J. Infect. Control 2011, 10, 866–872.

  23. Stenberg, B.; Eriksson, N.; Hoog, J.; Sundell, J.; Wall, S. The Sick Building Syndrome (Sbs) in Office Workers. A Case-ReferentStudy of Personal, Psychosocial and Building-Related Risk Indicators. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1994, 23, 1190–1197.

  24. Coley, David A and Rupert Greeves. “The Effect of Low Ventilation Rates on the Cognitive Function of a Primary School Class.”University of Exeter 2004,: 1–9.

  25. Chan, W. R., S. Parthasarathy, W. J. Fisk, and T. E. McKone. “Estimated Effect of Ventilation and Filtration on Chronic Health Risks in U.S. Offices, Schools, and Retail Stores.” Indoor Air 26, no. 2 (February 19, 2015): 331–43. doi:10.1111/ina.12189.

  26. Allen, Joseph G, Piers MacNaughton, Usha Satish, Suresh Santanam, Jose Vallarino, and John D Spengler. “Associations ofCognitive Function Scores with Carbon Dioxide, Ventilation, and Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Workers: A Controlled Exposure Study of Green and Conventional Office Environments.” Environmental Health Perspectives 2016,: 1.

  27. MacNaughton, P., Pegues, J., Satish, U., Santanam, S., Spengler, J. D., & Allen, J. (2015). Economic, Environmental and Health Implications of Enhanced Ventilation in Office Buildings. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12.doi: 10.3390/ijerph120x0000x

Air Quality

  1. Allen, Joseph G., Piers MacNaughton, Usha Satish, Suresh Santanam, Jose Vallarino, and John D. Spengler. “Associations ofCognitive Function Scores with Carbon Dioxide, Ventilation, and Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Workers: A Controlled Exposure Study of Green and Conventional Office Environments.” Environ Health Perspect 124, no. 6 (2015)

  2. EPA, US and ORIA. “An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality.” July 21, 2016.

  3. WHO Regional Office for Europe. WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization, 2010. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/128169/e94535.pdf?ua=1.

  4. Glas, Bo, Berndt Stenberg, Hans Stenlund, and Anna-Lena Sunesson. “Exposure to Formaldehyde, Nitrogen Dioxide, Ozone,and Terpenes Among Office Workers and Associations with Reported Symptoms.” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 88, no. 5 (October 2, 2014): 613–22. doi:10.1007/s00420-014-0985-y.

  5. Shi, Xiaofei, Rui Chen, Lingling Huo, Lin Zhao, Ru Bai, Dingxin Long, David Y. H. Pui, Weiqing Rang, and Chunying Chen. “Evaluation of Nanoparticles Emitted from Printers in a Lean Chamber, a Copy Center and Office Rooms: Health Risks of IndoorAir Quality.” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 15, no. 12 (December 1, 2015): 9554–64.

  6. Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot, Mark J. Mendell, Jonathan M. Gaffin, Grace Wang, and Wanda Phipatanakul. “Indoor Environmental Exposures and Exacerbation of Asthma: An Update to the 2000 Review by the Institute of Medicine.”Environmental Health Perspectives October 10, 2014,. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307922.

  7. WHO. 2009. WHO Handbook on Indoor Radon: A Public Health Perspective: World Health Organization.

  8. Song, Xuping, Yu Liu, Yuling Hu, Xiaoyan Zhao, Jinhui Tian, Guowu Ding, and Shigong Wang. “Short-Term Exposure to Air

    Pollution and Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13, no. 7 (June 28, 2016): 642. doi:10.3390/ijerph13070642.

  9. Arif, Ahmed A. and Syed M. Shah. “Association Between Personal Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds and Asthma Among US Adult Population.” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 80, no. 8 (March 15, 2007): 711–19. doi:10.1007/s00420-007-0183-2.

  10. Simoni, Marzia, Antonio Scognamiglio, Laura Carrozzi, Sandra Baldacci, Anna Angino, Francesco Pistelli, Francesco Di Pede, and Giovanni Viegi. “Indoor Exposures and Acute Respiratory Effects in Two General Population Samples from a Rural and an Urban Area in Italy.” Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 14 (April 2004): S144–52. doi:10.1038/ sj.jea.7500368.

  11. Singh, Amarnath, Ritul Kamal, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Gubbala Naga Venkata Satyanarayana, Vipin Bihari, Nishi Shukla, Altaf Hussain Khan, and Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran. “Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions Among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India.” Edited by Zhanjun Jia.PLOS ONE 11, no. 2 (February 12, 2016): e0148641. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148641.

  12. Baldacci S, Maio S, Cerrai S, Sarno G, Baiz N, Simoni M, Annesi-Maesano I, Viegi G. 2015. Allergy and Asthma: Effects of theExposure to Particulate Matter and Biologic Allergens. Respiratory Medicine, 109(9), 1089-1104.

  13. Maio, S, G Sarno, S Baldacci, I Annesi-Maesano, and G Viegi. “Air Quality of Nursing Homes and Its Effect on the Lung Health of Elderly Residents.” Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine 9, no. 6 (November 2, 2015): 671–73. doi:10.1586/17476348.201 5.1105742.

  14. Annesi-Maesano, Isabella, Nour Baiz, Soutrik Banerjee, Peter Rudnai, Solenne Rive, and the SINPHONIE Group. “Indoor Air Quality and Sources in Schools and Related Health Effects.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B 16, no. 8(November 17, 2013): 491–550. doi:10.1080/10937404.2013.853609.

  15. de Gennaro, Gianluigi, Genoveffa Farella, Annalisa Marzocca, Antonio Mazzone, and Maria Tutino. “Indoor and Outdoor Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds in School Buildings: Indicators Based on Health Risk Assessment to Single outCritical Issues.” Int J Environ Res Public Health 10, no. 12 (November 25, 2013): 6273–91. doi:10.3390/ijerph10126273.

  16. Brundage, J.; Scott, R.M.; Lednar, W.; Smith, D.; Miller, R. Building-Associated Risk of Febrile Acute Respiratory Diseases in Army Trainees. JAMA 1988, 259, 2108–2112.

  17. Mendell, Mark J, Ekaterina A Eliseeva, Michael Spears, Wanyu R Chan, Sebastian Cohn, Douglas P Sullivan, and William J Fisk.A Prospective Study of Ventilation Rates and Illness Absence in California Office Buildings. 2014.

  18. Al Horr, Yousef, Mohammed Arif, Amit Kaushik, Ahmed Mazroei, Martha Katafygiotou, and Esam Elsarrag. “OccupantProductivity and Office Indoor Environment Quality: A Review of the Literature.” Building and Environment 105 (August 2016): 369–89. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.06.001.

  19. Pervin, Tanjima, Ulf-G Gerdtham, and Carl Lyttkens. “Societal Costs of Air Pollution-Related Health Hazards: A Review ofMethods and Results.” Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation 6, no. 1 (2008): 19. doi:10.1186/1478-7547-6-19.

  20. Fisk, W.J. and Rosenfeld, A.H., 1997. Estimates of Improved Productivity and Health from Better Indoor Environments. Indoor Air, 7(3), pp.158-172.

  21. Meeker, J.D. and Stapleton, H.M., 2010. House dust concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants in relation tohormone levels and semen quality parameters. Environmental health perspectives, 118(3), p.318.

  22. Allen J, Gale S, Zoeller RT, Spengler JD, Birnbaum L, McNeely E. 2016. PBDE Flame Retardants, Thyroid Disease, and Menopausal Status in U.S. Women.Environmental Health. DOI 10.1186/s12940-016-0141-0

  23. Trudel, D., Horowitz, L., Wormuth, M., Scheringer, M., Cousins, I.T. and Hungerbühler, K., 2008. Estimating consumer exposureto PFOS and PFOA.Risk Analysis, 28(2), pp.251-269.

  24. Hu, X.C., Andrews, D.Q., Lindstrom, A.B., Bruton, T.A., Schaider, L.A., Grandjean, P., Lohmann, R., Carignan, C.C., Blum, A.,Balan, S.A., Higgins, C.P., Sunderland, E.M. 2016. Detection of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in U.S. Drinking Water Linked to Industrial Sites, Military Fire Training Areas, and Wastewater Treatment Plants. Environ Sci Technol Letters DOI:10.1021/acs.estlett.6b00260

  25. Lowell Center for Sustainable Production. Phthalates and Their Alternatives: Health and Environmental Concerns. Technical Briefing. January, 2011.

Thermal Health

  1. ASHRAE. ASHRAE Standard 55-2013. Accessed August 4, 2016. https://www.ashrae.org/resources--publications/ bookstore/standard-55.

  2. De Dear, R. “Thermal Comfort in Practice”. Indoor Air 14, supl. 7 (August, 2004): 32-39. doi/10.1111 /j.1600-0668.2004.00270.

  3. Fanger, P Ole (1970). Thermal Comfort: Analysis and applications in environmental engineering. McGraw-Hill

  4. Hémon D, Jougla E, Clavel J, Laurent F, Bellec S, Pavillon G. Surmortalité liée à la canicule d’août 2003 en France. Bulletin Epidémiologique Hebdomadaire. 2003;45-46:221-5.

  5. Salthammer, Tunga, Erik Uhde, Tobias Schripp, Alexandra Schieweck, Lidia Morawska, Mandana Mazaheri, Sam Clifford, et al. “Children’s Well-Being at Schools: Impact of Climatic Conditions and Air Pollution.”Environment International 94 (September 2016): 196–210. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2016.05.009.

  6. Chatzidiakou, L., D. Mumovic, and A. Summerfield. “Is CO2 a Good Proxy for Indoor Air Quality in Classrooms? Part 1: The Interrelationships Between Thermal Conditions, CO2 Levels, Ventilation Rates and Selected Indoor Pollutants.” Building Services Engineering Research and Technology 36, no. 2 (January 9, 2015): 129–61.

  7. Sakellaris IA, Saraga DE, Mandin C, Roda C, Fossati S, de Kluizenaar Y, Carrer P, Dimitroulopoulou S, MihuczVG, Szigeti T, Hänninen O, de Oliveira Fernandes E, Bartzis JG, Bluyssen PM. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Apr 25;13(5). pii: E444

  8. Bluyssen, P. M., C. Roda, C. Mandin, S. Fossati, P. Carrer, Y. de Kluizenaar, V. G. Mihucz, E. de Oliveira Fernandes, and J. Bartzis. “Self-Reported Health and Comfort in ‘modern’ Office Buildings: First Results from the European OFFICAIR Study.” Indoor Air 26, no. 2 (March 14, 2015): 298–317. doi:10.1111/ina.12196.

  9. Lan, L., P. Wargocki, D. P. Wyon, and Z. Lian. “Effects of Thermal Discomfort in an Office on Perceived Air Quality, SBS Symptoms, Physiological Responses, and Human Performance.” Indoor Air 21, no. 5 (April 18, 2011): 376–90.

  10. Lowen, A. C., Mubareka, S., Steel, J., & Palese, P. (2007). Influenza virus transmission is dependent on relative humidity and temperature. PLoS Pathog, 3(10), e151. http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.0030151

  11. Spengler, JD, Samet, JM, McCarthy JF, Eds. Indoor Air Quality Handbook, New York, McGraw-Hill 2001 Fang, L., Wyon, D. P., Clausen, G., & Fanger, P. O. (2004). Impact of Indoor Air Temperature and Humidity in an Office on Perceived Air Quality, SBS Symptoms and Performance. Indoor Air, 14(s7), 74-81.

  12. Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla, Mari Turunen, Jari Metsämuuronen, Jari Palonen, Tuula Putus, Jarek Kurnitski, and Richard Shaughnessy. Sixth Grade Pupils’ Health and Performance and Indoor Environmental Quality in Finnish School Buildings.

  13. Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla and Richard J. Shaughnessy. “Effects of Classroom Ventilation Rate and Temperature on Students’ Test Scores.” Edited by Jeffrey Shaman. PLOS ONE 10, no. 8 (August 28, 2015): e0136165. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136165.

  14. Park, J, Temperature Test Scores, and Educational Achievement, 2016, in preparation.


  1. Cho, Seung-Hyun, Tiina Reponen, Grace LeMasters, Linda Levin, Jian Huang, Teija Meklin, Patrick Ryan, Manuel Villareal, and David Bernstein. “Mold Damage in Homes and Wheezing in Infants.” Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 97, no. 4 (October 2006): 539–45. doi:10.1016/s1081-1206(10)60947-7.

  2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Moisture Control Guidance for Building Design, Construction and Maintenance Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). n.p., 2014. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-08/documents/moisture-control.pdf.

  3. Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot, Mark J Mendell, Jonathan M Gaffin, Grace Wang, and Wanda Phipatanakul. EHP – Indoor Environmental Exposures and Exacerbation of Asthma: An Update to the 2000 Review by the Institute of Medicine.October 2012. Accessed July 29, 2016. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307922. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307922.

  4. OSHA. Preventing Mold-Related Problems in the Indoor Workplace: A Guide for Building Owners, Managers, and Occupants.n.d.: 1–32.

  5. CDC. “Indoor Environmental Quality: Dampness and Mold in Buildings.” October 31, 2013. Accessed July 25, 2016. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/indoorenv/mold.html.

  6. Baxi, Sachin N., Jay M. Portnoy, Désirée Larenas-Linnemann, and Wanda Phipatanakul. “Exposure and Health Effects of Fungi on Humans.” The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice March 2016,. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2016.01.008.

  7. Pettigrew, H. David, Carlo F. Selmi, Suzanne S. Teuber, and M. Eric Gershwin. “Mold and Human Health: Separating the Wheatfrom the Chaff.” Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology 38, no. 2-3 (August 28, 2009): 148–55. doi:10.1007/s12016-009-8175- 5.

  8. Dannemiller, Karen C., Janneane F. Gent, Brian P. Leaderer, and Jordan Peccia. “Indoor Microbial Communities: Influence onAsthma Severity in Atopic and Nonatopic Children.” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 138, no. 1 (July 2016): 76–83. e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.11.027.

  9. Polyzois, Dimos, Eleoussa Polyzoi, John A Wells, and Theo Koulis. “Poor Indoor Air Quality, Mold Exposure, and UpperRespiratory Tract Infections—Are We Placing Our Children at Risk?” Journal of Environmental Health 78, no. 7 (March 2016): 20–27.

  10. Jaakkola, Jouni J. K., Bing-Fang Hwang, and Niina Jaakkola. “Home Dampness and Molds, Parental Atopy, and Asthma inChildhood: A Six-Year Population-Based Cohort Study.” Environmental Health Perspectives 113, no. 3 (December 9, 2004): 357–61. doi:10.1289/ehp.7242.

  11. Fisk, WJ, EA Eliseeva, and MJ Mendell. “Association of Residential Dampness and Mold with Respiratory Tract Infectionsand Bronchitis: A Meta-Analysis.” Environmental Health 9, no. 1 (November 15, 2010): 1. Accessed July 26, 2016. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-9-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-9-72.

  12. Bornehag, C. -G., J. Sundell, and T. Sigsgaard. “Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH): Report from an OngoingEpidemiological Investigation on the Association Between Indoor Environmental Factors and Health Effects Among Children in Sweden.” Indoor Air 14, no. s7 (August 2004): 59–66. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2004.00274.x.

  13. Fletcher, Alicia M., Matthew A. London, Kitty H. Gelberg, and Anthony J. Grey. “Characteristics of Patients with Work-Related Asthma Seen in the New York State Occupational Health Clinics.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 48, no.11 (November 2006): 1203–11. doi:10.1097/01.jom.0000245920.87676.7b.

  14. Angelon-Gaetz, Kim A., David B. Richardson, Stephen W. Marshall, and Michelle L. Hernandez. “Exploration of the Effects of Classroom Humidity Levels on Teachers’ Respiratory Symptoms.” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 89, no. 5 (January 27, 2016): 729–37. doi:10.1007/s00420-016-1111-0.

  15. Cummings, Kristin J., Jordan N. Fink, Monica Vasudev, Chris Piacitelli, and Kathleen Kreiss. “Vocal Cord Dysfunction Relatedto Water-Damaged Buildings.” The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice 1, no. 1 (January 2013): 46–50. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2012.10.001.

  16. NCES. “Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS).” December 2011. Accessed July 28, 2016. https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/sass/question1112.asp.

  17. Casas, L., A. Espinosa, J. Pekkanen, A. Asikainen, A. Borràs-Santos, J. Jacobs, E. J. M. Krop, et al. “School Attendance and Daily Respiratory Symptoms in Children: Influence of Moisture Damage.” Indoor Air June 2016,. doi:10.1111/ina.12311.